VENICE CARNIVAL 2017
The above and below pictures were taken during the Carnival of Venice in St. Mark's Square on February 25-26th 2017
Venice Carnival is the most famous Carnival celebrated in Europe and definitely the most elegant in the world.
The historical origins of the Carnival of Venice are to be found in very old Greek and Roman traditions: in ancient Greece, during religious rites dedicated to the God Dionisus, the "the Dionysiac cults", people used to wear masks to participate in public symbolic representations; the aim of such theatrical events was to bring mankind to a higher level of harmony with Nature, far from the social conventions of everyday life. In ancient Rome, the Goverment organised banquets and sacrifices to honor the God Saturn, the "Saturnalia": during such religious events, the social hierarchy was not standing anymore: slaves were allowed to behave as free citizens; a "prince" was drawn for and given full powers: he would wear a funny, colorful mask to represent the mockery of Roman aristocracy.
It is believed that the Republic of Venice was inspired by these Greek and Roman ancient traditions to create the Carnival as a concessions, especially to the more humble classes of the population, of a period of time devoted to parties and fun.
The word "Carnival" comes from the Latin expression "carnem levare" (do not eat meat) that was used in the Middle Ages by the Church to warn the faithful that they were not supposed to eat meat from the first day of Lent (that is from the next day after the last Carnival day) to Holy Thursday. Some historians believe that the Carnival was originally a party organized to celebrate the beginning of Spring.
Official documents from as early as the VIII centuries witness a tradition in Venice of a public party that features the immoderate enjoyment of food, drinks and “sexual pleasures”. The first official governmental document, that mentions the Carnival, was issued by Doge Falier in 1094. It was a document about public events and games and the word "Carnival" appears for the first time.
It is believed that the Venetian Government decided to let the people have a few days for fun and games and even mock the aristocracy and the Authorities. The complex administration of Venice, frequent wars, heavy taxation, general restrictions, used to inevitably lead to people discontent. By letting people have a few days of fun, the Republic intended to work off social tensions. By wearing masks both the rich and the poor could make fun of virtually everything with no risk of being identified and suffer bad consequences.
Between the XI and XII century the Carnival used to go on for 6 weeks, from December 26th to Ash Wednesday. During the Carnival, the Republic of Venice organized many different entertainments for the people. Musicians, dancers, jugglers and acrobats were invited to perform in the streets. The Carnival drew the attention of people to such an extent that business and everyday activities took a far second place.
The Carnival developed very soon a close relationship with the theatre, paving the way for the “street theatre” and improvised representations such as the “Commedia dell'Arte” where dressed up, masked actors could criticize and mock politicians and governors. Apart from the big party outdoors, performances, shows and short plays were also organized in small theatres, pubs and private houses and they were famous for being very transgressive and lustful.
More and more often criminals started to take advantage of the Carnival and the chance of going round in disguise, to hide their identity, freely commit any sort of crimes and get away with it thanks to their Carnival masks.
This phenomenon grew to such an extent that the Republic of Venice had to issue some special decrees to limit the use of masks: in 1339 the Doge issued a decree to forbid the use of masks and Carnival costumes during the night; in 1458 another decree forbade wearing masks when entering “holy places” dressed up as a woman or a priest as apparently some people used such disguise to enter churches, convents and monasteries undisturbed in order to commit “indecent behavior”. In 1703 another decree forbade entering gambling houses and casinos in Carnival costumes and masks as too many gamblers used them to hide their identity and vanish before paying their debts.
The masks, the transgression, the street shows and the sumptuous masked balls organized in the most elegant Venetian palaces made the Carnival incredibly famous in the XVII Century and Venice started then to attract thousands of visitors from all European countries.
The Carnival was celebrated every year until Venice fell under the domination of the King of Austria that banned it in 1797. At that time Venetians still used to wear masks on a number of occasions to hide their identity especially while gambling or pursuing risky love affairs. The use of masks was so common that a few law were approved to discourage such libertine habits.
The last historical Carnival of Venice was held in 1979: the loss of indipendence to Napoleon in 1979 determined the end of the Carnival for about two centuries. The use of Carnival costumes was banished apart from the masked balls in private palaces; the street shows and outdoors gatherings was also banned.
The Carnival came back in the IXX century but was mostly celebrated in private parties. Only in 1967 Venetians started again to organize parties with costumes and masks parades in an attempt to revive the old tradition of the Carnival. Only in 1979 the Municipality of Venice decided to bring back the Carnival to its original splendor and for the first time an actual schedule of the street shows was issued in an effort to revive the traditions and culture of Venice and restore the Carnival to its original splendor.
The event has become so spectacular that nowadays about 3 million tourists come to Venice every year to see the Carnival.