THE BATTLE OF LEPANTO

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The Battle of Lepanto was a naval clash that took place on October 7th 1571 in the Gulf of Patras, between the fleet of the so called “Holy League” and the fleet of the Ottoman Empire.

The Holy League was an alliance of Catholic European States organized by Pope Pius V and included the naval fleets of the Republic of Venice, the Spanish Empire, the Republic of Genoa, the Papal States, the Duchies of SavoyUrbino and Tuscany, and the Knights Hospitaller.

The Ottoman Empire suffered a major defeat and their leader, Admiral Ali Pasha, was killed in combat.

This naval engagement is considered to be the largest ever fought, up to that time, in the history of naval warfare.

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Background

Western Governors were more and more worried by the increasing expansion of the Ottoman Empire that was threatening not only the Venetian eastern colonies but also the Spanish Empire and all Mediterranean maritime States.

Pope Pius V was very worried about the Islamic expansion and since 1566 had been trying to form an alliance of Roman Catholic States. 

He was fighting a spiritual battle for the unity of Christendom that was already being threatened by the Protestant revolt.

What actually was at stake, was the control of maritime trade in the Mediterranean Sea and the safety of Continental Europe. Indeed, the Spanish Empire largely supported and financed the Holy League.

The siege of the Venetian town of Famagusta in Cyprus persuaded Pope Pius V that it was the right opportunity at the right time to unite the “Christian” forces under a “Holy League”.

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Famagusta

The official purpose for the creation of the Holy League was to support the Venetians to resist the Turkish siege in Famagusta in 1571. The island of Cyprus had been possession of the Venetians since 1480, but Selim II was determined to acquire the island and in the course of 1570 he had managed to conquer Nicosia and other Venetian possessions in Cyprus. Venice then turned to Pope Pius for help and support.

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The Holy League fleet

The Christian fleets decided to meet up off Messina (Sicily) in July 1571. The fleet was led by admiral Don John of Austria and was made up by more than 200 warships: 109 galleys + 6 galleasses from the Republic of Venice, 49 galleys from the Spanish Empire, 27 galleys from the Republic of Genoa, 7 galleys from the Papal States, 5 galleys from the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, 3 galleys each from the Duchy of Savoy and the Knights of Malta. The fleet was manned by approximately 30.000 sailors and oarsmen and carried about 36.000 fighting troops. The fleet left Messina on September 16th 1571 and reunited off Cefalonia on October 4th. As the fleet arrived in Cefalonia, they came to know that Famagusta had fallen on August 1.

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The Ottoman fleet

The Ottoman fleet was led by Admiral Ali Pasha, and consisted of 222 war galleys and 56 galliots with about 37,000 Oarsmen, 13,000 experienced sailors and 34,000 soldiers..

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THE BATTLE

Don John of Astria (Don Juan de Austria) decided to deploy in front of his fleet 6 Venetian Galleasses: these warships were considered to be “castles in the water” as they were very high and therefore difficult to board, and also because they were equipped with cannons along the sides, at the bow and stern. It has to be said that at the time Venetian firearms were definitely among the most advanced and powerful in the world.

Venetian Galleasses

Venetian Galleasses

Christian Left side

The first contact took place between the Christian left side division, 53 galleys captained by the Venetian Admiral Agostino Barbarigo and the Turkish left flank led by Şuluk Mehmet Shoraq (nicknamed “Siroco”).

Siroco had a very good knowledge of the depth of the water in the proximity of the coast and therefore managed to surround Barbarigo’s fleet. The Turkish Janissaries boarded Barbarigo’s galley and man to man fight commenced. As combat was raging, Barbarigo lifted up his helmet sallet in order to give clear orders to his crew but was caught by an arrow in the eye and died instantly. A group of warship led by the Marquis of Santa Cruz came to the rescue and the Venetians troops managed to have the better of the Turks and kill their leader Siroco. During the fighting, many Christian slaves who were at the oars in the Turkish galleys were freed by the Venetians and easily persuaded to join the Holy League and fight on their side. It did not take long before the Turkish fleet was defeated.

Agostino Barbarigo

Agostino Barbarigo

Mehmed Sokullu

Mehmed Sokullu

Álvaro De Bazán

Álvaro De Bazán

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Christian Center

Meanwhile in the center, the 4 Venetian gallasses unleashed on the Turkish fleet a devastating rain of fire, that seriously damaged about 70 ships and broke the battle array of Ali Pascia’s fleet.

Indeed Ali did not attempt to board the big galleasses and preferred to try to sail past them and launch his central division onto a frontal clash. Ali’s intent was to attack Don Juan’s galley (called “The Real”) and manage to kill him in order to break the morale of the Holy League fleet. 

In order to do so, he launched his galley directly towards “The Real” with such force that he managed to drive into it as far as the fourth rowing bench. The Turkish Janissaries boarded “the Real” and were having the better of the Spanish soldiers when Marcantonio Colonna (Don Juan’s deputy) came to the rescue and managed to reject the Janissaries. Soon the whole crew of the Turkish flagship was killed in hand-to-hand fighting and Ali Pasha himself was killed in combat. The Spanish crew hoisted the banner of the Holy League on Ali Pasha’s warship to inflict a crucial blow on the Turkish fleet morale. After only two hours the Turkish fleet was defeated both on the left side and the center.

Don Juan de Austria

Don John of Austria

Sufi Ali Pasha

Sufi Ali Pasha

Marcantonio Colonna

Marcantonio Colonna

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Christian right side

The Christian right side was led by the Genoese Admiral Giovanni Andrea Doria, but his fleet of 53 galleys and the 2 Venetian gallassess did not have enough time to join the Christian array before the battle began. Instead of taking his assigned position, Doria sailed towards the south, in an attempt, he explained later, to avoid a possible enveloping maneuver by the Turkish left that was led by Uluc Ali.

Doria’s fleet of about 53 galleys was facing a greater Turkish fleet of about 90 galleys; seeing himself outnumbered, Doria chose to adopt a different strategy and instead of going for a direct clash, preferred to try to control the enemy’s fleet and prevent a possible enveloping maneuver.

As soon as the gap between Doria’s fleet and the center of the Christian array was wide enough, Uluc Ali attacked a group of Christian galleys led by the Knights of Malta in the rear center of the Christian array. Their maneuver was quite successful and they even managed to snatch the flag of the Knights of Malta but they had to retreat as a reserve fleet led by the Marquis of Santa Cruz was coming to the rescue.

After only about three hours the naval battle had clearly turned in favor of the Christian coalition, but the fighting went on until the evening as groups of Turkish soldiers kept fighting to the last.

Giovanni Andrea Doria

Giovanni Andrea Doria

Uluc Ali

Uluc Ali

Knights of Malta

.Casualties:

Holy League: lost 7500 men

Ottoman Empire: lost 30000 men

Sunken galleys:

Holy League: sank 50 Ottoman galleys

Ottoman Empire: sank 12 Christian galleys

Taken galleys:

Holy League: 117

Ottoman Empire:

Prisoners:

Ottoman Empire: 8000